ONU: 56 milhões de pessoas passam fome em 17 países em conflito

 

Conflitos deixaram mais de 56 milhões de pessoas em uma situação de crise ou emergência alimentar informaram, nesta sexta-feira, 29, em Roma, duas agências da ONU após a análise dos casos de 17 países imersos na violência.

A FAO – Organização da ONU para a Alimentação e a Agricultura – e o PMA – Programa Mundial de Alimentos – entregaram um relatório ao Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas sobre a insegurança alimentar em 17 países, que têm dificultado “os esforços globais para erradicar a desnutrição” no mundo.

Em comunicado conjunto, as duas agências com sede em Roma apontaram que, nessas zonas, mais de 56 milhões de pessoas sofrem com altos níveis de fome, de acordo com a escala integrada que é utilizada para classificar as fases da segurança alimentar (IPC, por sua sigla em inglês) e outros análises.

Cerca da metade da população iemenita, 14 milhões de pessoas, sofrem com uma crise ou emergência pela fome, enquanto na Síria 8,7 milhões de pessoas (37% da população anterior à guerra) necessitam de urgência de ajuda alimentícia, assim como 4,8 milhões de pessoas no Sudão do Sul (40% da população).

A ONU mostrou sua preocupação com esses dois últimos países devido a deterioração progressiva que sofreram em 2016 segundo foram se prolongando os conflitos.

As agências também alertaram que a violência do grupo jihadista Boko Haram triplicou o número de deslocados nos últimos dois anos na região do lago Chade, que abrange Nigéria, Níger, Chade e Camarões, o que elevou os níveis de fome e desnutrição.

Em países que estão saindo de longos períodos de guerra civil como a Colômbia, milhões de pessoas seguem sofrendo com um alto grau de insegurança alimentícia.

Em outras zonas, embora o número absoluto de pessoas que passam fome seja mais baixo, estes representam uma alta porcentagem da população, como ocorre no Burundi (com 23%), Haiti (19%) e a República Centro-Africana (50%).

Além disso, calcula-se que 89% de todos os refugiados sírios que atualmente vivem no Líbano precisam de ajuda alimentícia urgente.

Outros países onde o conflito afetou de modo significativo a segurança alimentar são a República Democrática do Congo, Guiné-Bissau, Costa do Marfim, Libéria, Mali, Somália, Sudão, Iraque e Afeganistão.

A FAO e o PMA destacaram que o conflito é uma das principais causas da fome, já que destrói os cultivos, o gado e a infraestrutura agrícola, bloqueia os mercados e força os deslocamentos.

Além disso danifica o capital humano, contribui ao contágio de doenças e dificulta o acesso de governos e organizações humanitárias à população afetada, entre outras coisas.

Segundo as últimas estimativas, aproximadamente a metade dos pobres do planeta vive em países caracterizados pelo conflito e violência.

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