IBGE: Desemprego disparou em 2015 e foi o pior desde 2004

pnad2 Entre 2014 e 2015, o número de pessoas sem trabalho aumentou em quase três milhões de pessoas. Um aumento de 38,1% totalizando 10 milhões de pessoas desocupadas. Foi o pior resultado desde 2004, quando começou a série atual (a pesquisa não foi realizada em 2010). Todas as regiões apresentaram expansão da desocupação, principalmente Sudeste (46,0%) e Sul (66,1%).

Mais da metade (53,6%) dos desocupados eram mulheres; 26,3% nunca tinham trabalhado; 33,4% eram jovens de 18 a 24 anos de idade; 60,4% eram pretos ou pardos; e 48,2% não tinham completado o ensino médio.

A taxa de desocupação subiu 2,7 pontos percentuais em relação a 2014, chegando a 9,6%. Todas as grandes regiões apresentaram crescimento, sendo a menor taxa observada no Sul (6,8%) e a maior no Sudeste (10,7%).

Destaca-se o crescimento da taxa de desocupação dos jovens entre 18 e 24 anos de 15,2% em 2014 para 21,3% em 2015, um acréscimo de 6,1 p.p. Para os homens, em 2015, a taxa de desocupação era de 7,9% e para as mulheres, 11,7%.

pnad
Maria Lúcia Veira, gerente da PNAD, durante a coletiva.

É o que mostra a Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) 2015, cuja Síntese de Indicadores o IBGE divulga hoje pela última vez, encerrando um ciclo de 49 anos, iniciado com a primeira PNAD, em 1967. A partir de 2017, as principais informações sobre as características da população, de educação, trabalho, rendimento e habitação terão como fonte a PNAD Contínua.

Queda nos rendimentos

De 2014 para 2015, houve, pela primeira vez em 11 anos, queda nos rendimentos reais (corrigidos pela inflação). O rendimento de todos os trabalhos passou de R$ 1.950 para R$ 1.853 (-5,0%), o de todas as fontes (que inclui aposentadorias, recebimento de aluguéis, juros, benefícios sociais, entre outros) foi de R$1.845 para R$1.746 (-5,4%), e o domiciliar caiu de R$ 3.443 para R$3.186 (-7,5%). Além disso, todas as categorias do emprego registraram redução no rendimento médio mensal real do trabalho principal, especialmente os trabalhadores domésticos com carteira assinada (-3,1%).

A redução atingiu todos os estratos da distribuição dos rendimentos, mas, como foi mais intensa nas faixas de rendimentos mais elevados, manteve-se a trajetória de redução da desigualdade, medida pelo Índice de Gini (quanto mais perto de um, mais desigual). Para todas as fontes, o Gini passou de 0,497 em 2014 para 0,491 em 2015; para os rendimentos de trabalho, o índice caiu de 0,490 para 0,485 e, no caso do rendimento domiciliar, variou de 0,494 para 0,493.

A PNAD mostra também que, com uma queda mais intensa para os homens do que para as mulheres, houve redução na desigualdade entre os rendimentos masculino e feminino, de 74,5% para 76,1% entre 2014 e 2015.

Por outro lado, a taxa de analfabetismo das pessoas de 15 anos ou mais de idade manteve-se em queda e foi estimada em 8,0% (12,9 milhões de analfabetos) em 2015, frente a 8,3% (13,7 milhões) em 2014 e 11,5% (15,3 milhões) em 2004. A proporção de crianças de 4 a 5 anos frequentando escola apresentou o maior aumento. Em 2004, era de 70,0%; em 2015 este percentual passou para 84,3%.

Pela primeira vez desde 2004, caiu o número de domicílios com microcomputador (de 32,5 milhões em 2014 para 31,4 milhões em 2015). O percentual de domicílios atendidos por rede coletora de esgoto passou de 63,5% em 2014 para 65,3% em 2015, um incremento de 1,9 milhão. Já os domicílios atendidos por coleta de lixo (89,8%), rede geral de abastecimento de água (85,4%) e iluminação elétrica (99,7%) mantiveram as mesmas proporções na comparação com 2014. A máquina de lavar foi o bem cuja posse mais cresceu nos domicílios entre 2014 (58,7%) e 2015 (61,1%).

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