Produção industrial cresce 2,3% em dezembro, mas fecha o ano com queda de 6,6%

 

A produção industrial nacional cresceu 2,3% em dezembro do ano passado na comparação com novembro, de acordo com o IBGE. Essa foi a segunda taxa positiva consecutiva, acumulando expansão de 2,6%. Entretanto, no índice acumulado para o ano de 2016, a atividade industrial recuou 6,6% frente a igual período do ano anterior, após também registrar taxas negativas em 2015 (-8,3%) e 2014 (-3,0%). Com esse resultado, a taxa anualizada, indicador acumulado nos últimos doze meses, permaneceu com a redução no ritmo de queda iniciada em junho de 2016 (-9,7%).

Os índices do setor industrial foram negativos tanto para o fechamento do quarto trimestre de 2016 (-3,1%), como para o acumulado do segundo semestre do ano (-4,2%), ambas as comparações contra iguais períodos do ano anterior.

No confronto com dezembro de 2015 (série sem ajuste sazonal), a variação foi de -0,1%, 34ª taxa negativa consecutiva nesse tipo de comparação, mas a menos intensa da sequência.

Na passagem de novembro para dezembro de 2016, três das quatro grandes categorias econômicas e 16 dos 24 ramos pesquisados apresentaram taxas positivas. Entre os setores, o destaque foi veículos automotores, reboques e carrocerias (10,8%), que teve o maior resultado para o segmento desde junho de 2016 (11,7%) e intensificou a expansão de 6,9% verificada no mês anterior.

Outras contribuições positivas relevantes vieram de perfumaria, sabões, produtos de limpeza e de higiene pessoal (5,5%), de equipamentos de informática, produtos eletrônicos e ópticos (15,2%), de produtos de borracha e de material plástico (8,3%), de confecção de artigos do vestuário e acessórios (10,9%), de indústrias extrativas (1,6%), de produtos alimentícios (0,9%), de artefatos de couro, artigos para viagem e calçados (7,6%), de máquinas e equipamentos (2,4%) e de móveis (9,6%).

Entre os oito ramos que reduziram a produção nesse mês, os desempenhos de maior importância para a média global foram produtos farmoquímicos e farmacêuticos (-11,7%), coque, produtos derivados do petróleo e biocombustíveis (-1,9%) e bebidas (-5,5%), atividades que também apontaram taxas negativas em novembro último: -1,8%, -3,9% e -0,3%, respectivamente.

Entre as grandes categorias econômicas, bens de consumo duráveis (6,5%) e bens de consumo semi e não-duráveis (4,1%) mostraram as taxas positivas mais acentuadas, com o primeiro acumulando expansão de 11,0% nos dois últimos meses do ano; e o segundo eliminando parte da perda de 5,7% acumulada entre julho e novembro de 2016. Nessas categorias, os resultados desse mês foram os mais elevados desde julho de 2015 (9,8%) e dezembro de 2005 (4,6%), respectivamente.

O segmento de bens intermediários (1,4%) também apontou crescimento e intensificou o avanço de 0,7% registrado em novembro. Bens de capital (-3,2%) assinalou a única taxa negativa em dezembro de 2016 e eliminou parte do ganho de 3,9% de novembro.

Na série com ajuste sazonal, a evolução do índice de média móvel trimestral para o total da indústria apontou acréscimo de 0,5% no trimestre encerrado em dezembro de 2016 frente ao nível do mês anterior, interrompendo a trajetória descendente iniciada em julho de 2016.

Entre as grandes categorias econômicas, bens de consumo duráveis (3,5%) mostrou o avanço mais intenso e intensificou a expansão de 2,1% registrada no mês anterior, quando interrompeu três meses seguidos de recuo na produção. Bens de consumo semi e não-duráveis (0,9%) e bens intermediários (0,1%) também assinalaram taxas positivas, com o primeiro interrompendo a trajetória descendente iniciada em março de 2016; e o segundo apontando o primeiro resultado positivo desde julho de 2016. Por outro lado, o segmento de bens de capital (-0,2%) mostrou a única queda nesse mês e permaneceu com o comportamento predominantemente negativo presente desde setembro de 2016.

Produção industrial cai 0,1% em relação a dezembro de 2015

Na comparação com igual mês do ano anterior, o setor industrial teve queda de 0,1% em dezembro de 2016, com resultados negativos em duas das quatro grandes categorias econômicas, 12 dos 26 ramos, 37 dos 79 grupos e 45,0% dos 805 produtos pesquisados.

Entre as atividades, coque, produtos derivados do petróleo e biocombustíveis (-14,1%) exerceu a maior influência negativa na formação da média da indústria, pressionada, em grande parte, pelos itens óleo diesel e álcool etílico. Outras contribuições negativas relevantes sobre o total nacional vieram de produtos farmoquímicos e farmacêuticos (-27,4%), de produtos alimentícios (-3,1%), de bebidas (-5,8%), de outros equipamentos de transporte (-21,8%), de produtos de minerais não-metálicos (-4,9%) e de impressão e reprodução de gravações (-18,8%).

Entre as 14 atividades que apontaram expansão na produção, as principais influências foram veículos automotores, reboques e carrocerias (19,8%) e indústrias extrativas (7,0%). Vale destacar também os resultados positivos vindos de máquinas e equipamentos (12,6%), de confecção de artigos do vestuário e acessórios (23,4%) e de equipamentos de informática, produtos eletrônicos e ópticos (29,1%).

Ainda no confronto com dezembro de 2015, o segmento bens de consumo semi e não-duráveis (-3,6%) assinalou a redução mais acentuada entre as grandes categorias econômicas. O setor bens intermediários (-0,5%) também mostrou resultado negativo nesse mês e com intensidade maior do que a média nacional (-0,1%). Por outro lado, bens de capital (17,3%) e bens de consumo duráveis (4,8%) apontaram as taxas positivas.

Setor industrial recua 3,1% no quarto trimestre de 2016

O setor industrial, ao recuar 3,1% no quarto trimestre de 2016, assinalou a décima primeira taxa negativa consecutiva nesse tipo de confronto, mas teve a queda menos elevada dessa sequência. Na passagem do terceiro (-5,3%) para o quarto trimestre de 2016 (-3,1%), ambas as comparações contra iguais períodos do ano anterior, o total da indústria mostrou redução na intensidade de perda e, entre as grandes categorias econômicas, esse movimento de ganho de ritmo entre os dois períodos foi mais acentuado em bens de consumo duráveis (de -12,1% para 0,6%) e bens de capital (de -4,4% para 1,8%).

O segmento de bens intermediários (de -5,0% para -2,9%) também registrou redução na magnitude do recuo, mas permaneceu apontando taxa negativa pelo 13º trimestre consecutivo. Por outro lado, o setor produtor de bens de consumo semi e não-duráveis, ao passar de -4,4% para -5,5%, foi o único que apontou perda de ritmo entre os dois períodos.

Em 2016, indústria acumula queda de 6,6%

No índice acumulado para o período janeiro-dezembro de 2016, frente a igual período do ano anterior, o setor industrial mostrou queda de 6,6%, com perfil disseminado de taxas negativas, já que as quatro grandes categorias econômicas, 23 dos 26 ramos, 63 dos 79 grupos e 72,8% dos 805 produtos pesquisados apontaram redução na produção.

Entre as atividades, indústrias extrativas (-9,4%), coque, produtos derivados do petróleo e biocombustíveis (-8,5%) e veículos automotores, reboques e carrocerias (-11,4%) exerceram as maiores influências negativas na formação da média da indústria. Outras contribuições negativas relevantes sobre o total nacional vieram de máquinas e equipamentos (-11,8%), produtos de minerais não-metálicos (-10,9%), outros equipamentos de transporte (-21,7%), metalurgia (-6,6%), produtos de metal (-9,8%), equipamentos de informática, produtos eletrônicos e ópticos (-14,8%), produtos de borracha e de material plástico (-7,1%), máquinas, aparelhos e materiais elétricos (-8,5%), produtos do fumo (-25,6%), produtos farmoquímicos e farmacêuticos (-6,0%), confecção de artigos do vestuário e acessórios (-5,8%) e móveis (-11,0%).

Por outro lado, entre as três atividades que ampliaram a produção nos doze meses de 2016, as principais influências foram observadas em produtos alimentícios (0,6%) e celulose, papel e produtos de papel (2,5%).

Entre as grandes categorias econômicas, o perfil dos resultados para os doze meses de 2016 mostrou menor dinamismo para bens de consumo duráveis (-14,7%) e bens de capital (-11,1%), pressionadas, especialmente, pela redução na fabricação de automóveis (-12,8%) e de eletrodomésticos (-16,3%), na primeira; e de bens de capital para equipamentos de transporte (-12,6%) e para fins industriais (-11,4%), na segunda.

Bens intermediários (-6,3%) e bens de consumo semi e não-duráveis (-3,7%) também assinalaram taxas negativas no índice acumulado do ano, com o primeiro registrando recuo ligeiramente abaixo da magnitude observada na média nacional (-6,6%); e o segundo apontando a queda mais moderada entre as grandes categorias econômicas.

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