Inflação oficial fecha 2016 em 6,29% abaixo da meta, diz IBGE

inflacao-2-repcap A inflação oficial do país, medida pelo Índice Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo (IPCA) fechou 2016 com variação acumulada de 6,29%, abaixo do teto da meta fixada pelo Banco Central – que variava entre 4,5% e 6,5%.

A constatação é do Instituto Brasileiro de Geogafia e Estatística (IBGE), que divulgou hoje (11), no Rio de Janeiro, o IPCA de dezembro, que subiu 0,3%, o mais baixo para o mês desde a taxa de 0,28% de 2008.

A inflação acumulada em 2016 chegou a ficar 4,38 pontos percentuais abaixo da variação acumulada em 2015, que foi de 10,67%. Também ficou abaixo dos 6,41% de 2014.

Segundo o IBGE, a queda entre 2015 e 2016 foi determinada pela retração dos preços dos alimentos.

Alimentação fora de casa

Mesmo fechando abaixo do teto da meta, o resultado de dezembro ficou acima do de novembro de 2016, quando a variação foi de 0,18% contra 0,26% de outubro. Neste caso, também influenciado pela alta dos preços do grupo Alimentação e Bebidas (passou de uma deflação de 0,20% em novembro para uma alta de 0,08% em dezembro; e também de Despesas Pessoais (de 0,47% para 1,01%) e de Transportes (de 0,28% para 1,11%).

De acordo com o IBGE, os alimentos passaram de uma inflação negativa em novembro para uma alta de 0,08% em dezembro em decorrência da alimentação consumida em casa (subiu de -0,47% em novembro para -0,05% em dezembro).

Apesar de alguns produtos alimentícios em queda, como feijão-carioca (-13,77%) e o leite longa vida (-3,97%), outros produtos importantes na mesa do brasileiro exerceram pressão contrária, como o arroz (0,21%),  carnes (0,77%) e frutas (3,39%). Em dezembro, a alimentação fora de casa manteve a mesma taxa de novembro (0,33%).

Principais impactos

Os principais impactos individuais para a alta de 0,33%  no IPCA de novembro vieram de passagens aéreas que, com a alta de 26,29%, contribui com 0,1 ponto percentual para a inflação de dezembro; gasolina (alta de 1,75% e contribuição de 0,07 ponto percentual); e  cigarro (4,8% de alta e contribuição de 0,05 ponto percentual).

Juntos, esses três itens responderam por 0,22 ponto percentual, o equivalente a 73% do IPCA de 0,3% registrado em dezembro do ano passado. Segundo ainda o IBGE, passagens aéreas e gasolina foram os principais responsáveis pelo IPCA do setor Transportes, cuja elevação foi de 1,11%, a maior alta de grupo no mês.

Houve elevação de preços em outros itens do grupo, como seguro voluntário de veículo (2,92%), diesel (1,47%), etanol (0,75%) e conserto de veículo (0,57%). No caso da gasolina, o aumento foi reflexo do reajuste de 8,10%, a partir de 6 de dezembro. O diesel teve um reajuste de 9,50% na mesma data.

Nas Despesas Pessoais (1,01%), a maior pressão veio do cigarro (4,80%), tendo em vista reajustes ocorridos a partir de 1º de dezembro. Houve influência, também, dos serviços de excursão (0,91%), empregado doméstico (0,87%) e cabeleireiro (0,53%).

Nos demais grupos, destacam-se as altas de artigos de limpeza (1,18%), plano de saúde (1,07%), mão de obra para pequenos reparos (0,87%), roupa masculina (0,72%), roupa feminina (0,66%).

Impactos para baixo

Na contramão da alta de dezembro, puxando os preços para baixo, aparece a energia elétrica, cujos preços fecharam com deflação (inflação negativa) de 3,7%, contribuindo negativamente com menos 0,13 ponto percentual no IPCA de dezembro.

Segundo o IBGE, a queda nos preços da energia “se deve à volta da bandeira tarifária verde em 1º de dezembro, em substituição à amarela, que implicava em custo adicional de R$ 1,50 por cada 100 kilowatts-hora consumidos.”

Outros destaques em queda de preços foram: TV, som e informática (-2,15%), automóvel usado (-1,65%) e eletrodomésticos (-0,62%).

Inflação por regiões

Das 13 principais regiões metropolitanas do país envolvidas no IPCA, oito fecharam com taxas acima da média nacional de 6,29%. Regionalmente, o IPCA mais elevado do ano foi anotado na Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza onde fechou 2016 com alta acumulada de 8,34%; seguido de Campo Grande, com 7,52%; Recife (7,1%; Porto Alegre (6,95%; Belém (6,77%); Salvador (6,72%); Belo Horizonte (6,6%) e Rio de Janeiro (6,33%).

Registraram taxas abaixo da média nacional de 6,29%, São Paulo, com variação de 6,13%; Brasília (5,62%); Goiânia (5,25%); Vitória (5,11%); e Curitiba, a menor inflação do país, com alta de 4,43%.

O IPCA é calculado pelo IBGE desde 1980. Ele se refere a famílias com rendimento de 1 a 40 salários mínimos e abrange dez regiões metropolitanas do país, além de Goiânia, Campo Grande e de Brasília.

Fonte: Agência Brasil

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