Brasil: criminalidade custa mais de R$ 250 bi por ano

 

A violência e criminalidade custaram ao Brasil US$ 91,38 bilhões em 2014 (cerca de R$ 258,3 bilhões), ou 3,78% do PIB daquele ano. O dado está em pesquisa divulgada nesta sexta (3) pelo Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento (BID). O gasto com a violência no país ficou acima da média registrada para países do Cone Sul, de 2,47% do PIB. O levantamento é o primeiro a avaliar o gasto com a violência em 17 países e tem um capítulo sobre o Brasil.

O valor despendido no Brasil equivale a 53% do custo total da criminalidade na América Latina e no Caribe. Além disso, entre 17 países analisados na região, o custo da violência no Brasil ficou abaixo apenas de Honduras (5,84%), El Salvador (5,46%), Bahamas (4,16%) e Jamaica (3,64%). A maior parte dos valores gastos pelo Brasil vai para a segurança privada.

Conforme o levantamento do BID, as despesas privadas compuseram a maior parcela dos custos do crime em 2014, ficando em 47,9% do total. O percentual ficou acima da média registrada para a América Latina e o Caribe, de 42,7%, e para os países do Cone Sul, de 43,4%.

“O Brasil se destaca por seu alto gasto com segurança privada, o que pode ser entendido como indício do sentimento da população sobre o serviço de segurança prestado pelo governo”, destaca o organismo na pesquisa.

No caso das despesas com segurança pública, que corresponderam a 36,1% dos gastos com o crime, ocorreu o inverso. O investimento brasileiro ficou abaixo da média registrada para os demais países do Continente americano. O gasto público médio em segurança representou 39,7% do total para a América Latina e o Caribe e 41,4% para os países do Cone Sul.

Regiões e estados

O estudo avaliou ainda o custo da violência de acordo com a região ou o estado do país. Segundo o BID, “o custo entre estados e regiões [no Brasil] é semelhante, em termos de heterogeneidade, ao observado nos países da América Latina e do Caribe”.

Os maiores custos são verificados nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Em ambas, o custo médio da violência equivale a 4,2% do PIB. No Centro-Oeste, fica em 3,1% e no Sul, em 3%. A região brasileira com o menor gasto com criminalidade em relação ao PIB é o Sudeste, com 2,7%. Entre os estados, o menor gasto ocorre no Tocantins (2%) e o maior em Alagoas (6,2%).

Por outro lado, há diferenças no tipo de gasto que predomina em cada localidade. No Sudeste (49,5%), Sul (47,2%) e Centro-Oeste (43,2%) o gasto privado com segurança supera o verificado no Nordeste (36%) e Norte (35,2%).

Já o gasto público predomina no Norte (44,6%) e Nordeste (44,3%). No Sudeste (33,3%), Sul (32,6%) e Centro-Oeste (32%), no entanto, essa despesa fica atrás do gasto com segurança privada.

Ações

O BID destaca a importância de fazer pesquisas futuras a fim de estudar o custo-benefício de ações de prevenção e controle do crime. O organismo ressalta que algumas localidades analisadas mostraram melhora na segurança pública.

Em São Paulo, Pernambuco e no Rio de Janeiro, por exemplo, as taxas de homicídio caíram 67%, 33% e 32%, respectivamente, no período de 2000 a 2014. “Vale a pena rever essas intervenções para extrair lições aprendidas para aplicações em outros lugares do Brasil e da região”, conclui o banco.

 

Com informações da Agência Brasil

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